Slučaj Habimi i drugi protiv Srbije / Habimi case and other against Serbia number 19072/08

Slučaj Habimi i drugi protiv Srbije br. 19072/08

 

U novembru 2006.godine došlo je do protesta u jednom broju zatvora širom zemlje zbog neispunjenog zahteva da se usvoji posebni zahtev o amnestiji. U Kazneno-popravnom zavodu Niš su navodno izbili nasilni sukobi izmedju grupa zatvorenika 22.11.2006.godine a sutradan su zatvorenici zatražili da svo zatvorsko osoblje uključujući i stražare napuste spavaonice. Zavodske vlasti su procenile da postoji veoma stvarna pretnja za život i zdravlje zatvorenika koji su odbili da učestvuju u pobuni, pa je Upravnik Kazneno-popravnog zavoda istog dana formirao krizni štab koji je doneo odluku da je neophodna veća intervencija. Tako su 24.11.2006.godine ujutru oko 7:20 časova više od 330 specijalnih policajaca, pripadnika žandarmerije, koji su imali šlemove sa vizirom a kojima su pomagali zatvorski stražari i drugo osoblje službe bezbednosti, ušli u Kazneno-popravni zavod u Nišu, i protesti su stavljeni pod ,,kontrolu” do 8:45 časova ujutru. Tokom ove intervencije povredjeno je ukupno 79 zatvorenika kojima je pružena lekarska pomoć. Podnosioci predstavke tvrde da su protesti bili mirni i da su se sastojali u tome što su odbijali da uzimaju hranu, i da nikakvih nemira nije bilo, niti oružja. Takodje tvrde da su ih tokom a i posle intervencije policajci i zatvorski stražari fizički zlostavljali , da su ih tukli palicama za bejzbol i gumenim palicama, terali ih da trče izmedju dva reda policajaca i/ili zatvorskih stražara koji su ih udarali dok su prolazili i na kraju da leže na hladnom betonskom podu satima sa lisicama na rukama. Zbog toga su podnosioci predstavke pretrpeli razne povrede, lomovi kostiju, modrice i rane po celom telu, unutrašnja krvarenja i potresi mozga.

Istog dana Odeljenje kriminalističke policije PU Niš u prisustvu istražnog sudije Opštinskog suda u Nišu i Opštinskog javnog tužioca, izvršili su uvidjaj na licu mesta. Punomoćnik oštećenih zatvorenika Dragutin Vidosavljević, advokat Odbora za ljudska prava Leskovac,  je do 11.maja 2007.godine podneo krivične prijave protiv neimenovanih policajaca i jednog broja zatvorskih stražara Opštinskom javnom tužilaštvu u Nišu, zbog povreda koje su pretrpeli zatvorenici prilikom intervencije policije, i zatražio da OJT Niš hitno utvrdi potpuni identitet svih policajaca koji su učestvovali u njihovom zlostavljanju, pribavi relevantne lekarske izveštaje koji dokumentuju njihove povrede, da se sasluša jedan broj stalnih zatvorenika koji su bili svedoci njihovog zlostavljanja i podnese krivične prijave protiv odgovornih. OJT je u toku 2007.godine pribavilo od PU Niš podatke o identitetu povredjenih lica, izveštaj o upotrebi sredstava prinude tokom intervencije 24.11.2006.godine i podatke o identitetu zatvorskih stražara koji su navedeni u krivičnim prijavama. PU Niš je na zahtev OJT-a obavila razgovore sa licima koje su imenovali oštećeni zatvorenici, i sa samim oštećenima, da bi decembra 2007.godine Opštinsko javno tužilaštvo odbacilo krivične prijave, sa obrazloženjem da su povrede oštećenima nastale usled tuče izmedju samih zatvorenika , padovima niz stepenice i udaranjem od nameštaj ili zbog otpora zatvorenika policiji koja je pokušavala da povrati red.

Advokat Odbora, punomoćnik oštećenih zatvorenika po odbacivanju krivičnih prijava, podneo je Opštinskom sudu u Nišu zahtev za sprovodjenje pojedinačnih istražnih radnji radi utvrdjivanja identiteta osumnjičenih, policajaca i zatvorskih stražara,  čime bi se omogućilo da oštećeni preuzmu krivično gonjenje, tj. radi pokretanja supsidijarnog krivičnog postupka, iz razloga su oštećeni osumnjičene znali samo po imenu ili nadimku, ili ih nisu znali uopšte. Istražni sudija koji je postupao u ovom predmetu, dostavio je mišljenje veću da postupanje po zahtevu punomoćnika oštećenih nije celishodno, ali je veće Opštinskog suda u Nišu donelo u aprilu 2008.godine rešenje kojim je usvojio predlog za preduzimanje odredjenih istražnih radnji i naložio istražnom sudiji da sasluša oštećene. Tokom saslušanja oštećenih, mnogi od njih su se bojali da imenuju policajce koji su učestvovali, mnogi nisu mogli da identifikuju policajce jel su imali vizire, ali su svi potvrdili da su bili zlostavljani. Do januara 2011.godine kada je Republika Srbija podnela odbranu pred Evropskim sudom za ljudska prava u Strazburu, nije bilo nikakvog postupanja pred Opštinskim sudom u Nišu.

Evropski sud za ljudska prava, razmatrajući predstavku Habimi i drugi protiv Srbije, broj 19072/08, utvrdio je povredu člana 3.Evropske konvencije za zaštitu ljudskih prava i osnovnih sloboda, o zabrani mučenja.

Sud je utvrdio da je istragu isključivo vodila policija koja je bila institucionalno povezana sa pripadnicima žandarmerije, optuženim za zlostavljanje podnosilaca predstavke, a i jedna i druga su deo Ministarstva unutrašnjih poslova. Kako je utvrdjeno od samog OJT-a tokom istrage, nije bilo elemenata krivičnog dela iz čl.338 KZ, od strane zatvorenika, jel oni nikada nisu imali nameru da koriste silu kako bi pobegli iz zatvora, pa se postavlja pitanje kako je došlo do upotrebe tolike sile, i da je ona bila zakonita i srazmerna. Prilikom odbacivanja krivičnih prijava nije razmatrano zašto bi podnosioci predstavke bili tako odlučni da optuže policiju i zatvorske stražare da su ih zlostavljali. Istražni sudija je saslušao samo podnosioce predstavke i pribavio zapisnik o izjavama ostalih. Sudija nikada nije saslušao nikakve svedoke , niti policajce ili zatvorske čuvare, a ni OJT niti istražni sudija nisu pokušali da identifikuju policajce i zatvorske čuvare koji su zlostavljali podnosioce predstavke, iako su neki od njih mogli da se identifikuju. Takodje nije im pružena prilika ni da se suoče sa onima koji su ih zlostavljali . Dalje jedan broj podnosilaca predstavke saslušan je od strane policije i/ili istražnog sudije u prostorijama Kazneno-popravnog zavoda u Nišu, gde je nekoliko oštećenih izjavilo da se plaše da identifikuju one koji su ih zlostavljali dok su neki odlučili da povuku svoje pritužbe. Istražni sudija nije preuzeo ništa da ispita znake zvaničnog zastrašivanja. Advokatu podnosilaca predstavke I Odboru je uskraćen pristup medicinskoj dokumentaciji, zapravo lekari i institucije gde su zatvorenici bili primljeni na lečenje, nisu hteli da izdaju lekarska uverenja o povredama koje su nastale.

Evropski sud za ljudska prava zauzeo je stav da je procesni aspekt člana 3. Konvencije u ovom predmetu povredjen, što znači da Republika Srbija nije sprovela delotvornu istragu povodom ovog slučaja. Sud je zauzeo stav da vlasti moraju da postupaju odmah, da se istraga pokrene odmah ukoliko postoje jasne indikacije da je došlo do zlostavljanja, pri čemu se ne može zahtevati od samih žrtava da samostalno pokreću istragu protiv državnih službenika koji su osumnjičeni za zlostavljanje, već je to dužnost javnog tužioca. Takodje, istraga mora biti temeljna što znači da vlasti moraju uvek ozbiljno pokušati da utvrde šta se dogodilo a ne da svoje odluke baziraju na brzim i pogrešnim zaključcima radi okončanja istrage. Oni koji sprovode istragu treba da budu nezavisni od onih koji su uključeni u sporni dogadjaj.

Sud je obavezao Republiku Srbiju i podnosiocima predstavke dodelio na ime nematerijalne štete po 3500 evra i na ime troškova 5000 evra ukupno. Na listi su 37 lica. Država je isplatila novčana sredstva u predvidjenom roku.

Ovaj slucaj je trajao vise od sest godina I ne bi bio realizovan da nije bilo finansiske pomoci United Nations Fund for Victims of Torture (UNFVT)

U Leskovcu,dana  12.03.2015.godine

U ime Odbora za ljudska prava Leskovac,

Nešić Dobrosav, zakoniti zastupnik

***

Habimi case and other against Serbia number 19072/08

In November 2006, there have been protests in a certain number of prisons throughout the country due to the unfulfilled demands to adopt a special request for amnesty. In Prison in Nis violent clashes allegedly broke out between two groups of prisoners on Nov 22nd 2006 and the next day the prisoners requested that all prison staff, including the guards, leave the sleeping rooms. Institutional authorities estimated that prisoners who refused to take part in the rebellion were in a life threatening situation, so the same day the Administrator of the Correctional Facility formed a group which made the decision that they were in need of greater intervention. So on Nov 24th in the morning at around 7:20 pm, more than 330 policemen, who had a helmet with visor and with the help of prison guards and other personnel of the security service, entered the Institution in Nis and protests were placed under “control” until 8:45 o’clock in the morning. During this intervention, there was a total of 79 prisoners injured who were provided with medical assistance. The applicants claim that the protests were peaceful and that they began because they refused to take food and that there were no riots nor weapons. Also, they claim that they have been physically abused during and after the intervention of police officers and prison guards; that they were beaten with baseball bats and rubber truncheons; forced to run between two lines of police officers and/or prison guards who hit them as they passed, and finally that they were made to lie on the cold concrete floor for hours in handcuffs. Therefore, the applicants had suffered various injuries, broken bones, bruises and wounds all over their body, internal bleeding and concussions.

The same day, the Department of Criminal Police in Nis in the presence of the investigating judge of the Municipal Court in Nis and the Municipal Public Prosecutor, conducted a visit of the site. The authorized representative of prisoners Dragutin Vidosavljević, lawyer of the Committee for Human Rights Leskovac until May 11th 2007, filed a criminal complaint against unidentified police officers and a number of prison officers, in Municipal Public Prosecutor’s Office in Nis, due to injuries suffered by prisoners in the police, and requested that OJT Nis urgently establishes a complete identity of all police officers who participated in their abuse, obtain relevant medical reports that document their injuries, interrogate some of regular prisoners who witnessed their abuse and bring criminal charges against those who are responsible. During 2007 OJT has obtained from PU Nis information about the identity of the injured person, a report on the use of force during the intervention on Nov 24th 2006 and the information about the identity of prison guards that are listed in the criminal charges. At the request of OJT PU Nis has conducted interviews with the persons named by the injured prisoners, together with the injured. This was in vain since in December 2007, the Municipal Public Prosecutor’s Office dismissed the criminal complaint on the grounds that the injuries were made during the fights between prisoners themselves, because of falls down the stairs, kicking of furniture or resistance of prisoners to the police who were trying to restore order.

The lawyer of the Committee, the representative of the prisoners after the rejection of criminal charges, filed in Municipal Court in Nis requirements for conducting individual investigative activities to determine the identity of the suspects, police officers and prison guards, as this would allow the injured to assume the prosecution, i.e. in order to initiate subsidiary criminal proceedings for the reason that the injured knew the suspects only by name or nickname, or they did not know them at all. The investigating judge who has acted in this case, was of the opinion that the action of the representative of the injured was not appropriate, but the council of the Nis Municipal Court issued in April 2008 the decision by which it adopted a proposal for undertaking certain investigative actions and ordered the investigating judge to interrogate the injured. During the interrogation of the plaintiffs, many were afraid to identify the officers who participated, many could not identify the officers because they had worn visors, but they all confirmed that they were abused. By January 2011 when the Republic of Serbia filed a defense before the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, there were no actions before the Municipal Court in Nis.

Considering the Habimi application and others against Serbia, No. 19072/08, European Court of Human Rights found a violation of Article 3. of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, about the prohibition of torture.

The Court claimed that the investigation was conducted solely by the police, which was institutionally linked with members of the gendarmerie, accused of abuse of the applicants, and that both were a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. As it was discovered by the OJT during the investigation, there were elements of the violation of the rule 338 by the prisoners, as they never had the intention to use force in order to escape from prison, so the question is how they used so much force, and how can it be lawful and proportionate. With the rejection of criminal charges it was not considered why the applicants were so determined to prosecute the police and prison guards who abused them. The investigating judge examined only applicants and obtained the record of the statements of others. The judge never heard any witnesses or police officers or prison guards, and even OJT or the investigating judge did not attempt to identify police officers and prison guards who abused applicants, although some of them could be identified. They were not even given any opportunity to confront those who abused them. Furthermore, a number of applicants interviewed by the police and/or the investigating judge at the premises of the Correctional Facility in Nis whereby several victims said they were afraid to identify those who abused them while some decided to withdraw their complaints. The investigating judge did not do anything to examine the signs of official intimidation. Access to medical records was denied to the representative of the injured and to the committee, in fact the doctors and institutions where the prisoners were admitted for treatment, refused to issue medical certificates of injuries that have occurred.

European Court of Human Rights claimed that the procedural aspect of Article 3 of the Convention in this case was violated, which means that the Republic of Serbia did not conduct an effective investigation about this case. The Court decided that the government must act immediately to initiate an investigation urgently if there are clear indications that the abuse occurred, whereby it cannot be required by the victims themselves to self-initiate an investigation against civil servants suspected of abuse since it is the duty of the public prosecutor. Also, the investigation must be thorough, which means that the authorities must always make a serious attempt to determine what happened and not to base their decisions on fast and wrong conclusions in order to complete the investigation. Those conducting the investigation should be independent of those involved in the event itself.

The court obliged the Republic of Serbia and the applicants were given 3500€ for the non-material damage and 5,000 euros in total for the expenses. The list includes 37 persons. The state paid the money within the prescribed period.

This case lasted more than six years and I would not have been realised withouth the financial aid of the United Nations Fund for Victims of Torture (UNFVT).

In Leskovac, on 12.03.2015

On behalf of the Committee for Human Rights Leskovac,

Dobrosav Nesic, legal representative

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